Seismic Characterization of Fault Facies Models
статья в журнале
(ИНГГ СО РАН)
дата публикации: 2017
Faults play a key role in reservoirs by enhancing or restricting fluid flow. A fault zone can be divided into a fault core that accommodates most of the displacement and a surrounding damage zone. Interpretation of seismic data is a key method for studying subsurface features, but the internal structure and properties of fault zones are often at the limit of seismic resolution. In this paper, we investigate the seismic response of a vertical fault zone model in sandstone, populated with fault facies based on deformation band distributions. Deformation bands reduce the porosity of the sandstone, and condition its elastic properties. We generate synthetic seismic cubes of the fault facies model for several wave frequencies and under realistic conditions of reservoir burial and seismic acquisition. Seismic image quality and fault zone definition are highly dependent on wave frequency. At low wave frequency (e.g., 10 Hz), the fault zone is broader and no information about its fault facies distribution can be extracted. At higher wave frequencies (e.g., 30 and 60 Hz), seismic attributes, such as tensor and envelope, can be used to characterize the fault volume and its internal structure.